Published Jul 31, 2019
Lakhwinder Pal Singh Satnam Singh


Despite progress in technology, workplace safety in small scale manufacturing industries (SSMIs) still lacks the required attention. Occupational safety of workers is one of the major concerns for organizations as it involves a number of factors that affect many direct and indirect costs of the industry. To this end, the current study was conducted in order to determine the key factors that affect workplace safety. A total of nine main factors and twenty-two sub-factors were identified and then prioritized using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Opinions from experienced and proficient experts were recorded on a framed questionnaire for all the above factors. The effectiveness of the study was ensured by maintaining a consistency ratio of less than 10% for the factors and sub-factors. The factor personal protective equipment was found to have the highest Eigen vector of 27.4%, and therefore the highest priority. Organizational attributes and hygiene are the factors that demand the next level of priority, whereas, equipment and hand tools safety and machine guarding, and material handling are the factors requiring the least priority. The outcome of this analysis enables the small scale manufacturing industries to effectively implement safety measures by giving priority to the factors in the order specified by the study. This would empower the organizational safety standards and benefit not only the employees but also the employers without considerable costs.

How to Cite

Singh, L. P., & Singh, S. (2019). STRATEGIC ENHANCEMENT OF WORKPLACE SAFETY IN SMALL SCALE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES USING AHP APPROACH: Identification of safety parameters using AHP. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, 11(2), 269–282.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 1036 | PDF Downloads 337



analytical hierarchy process (AHP); small scale manufacturing industry (SSMI); workplace safety; safety factors, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), small scale manufacturing industry (SSMI), workplace safety factors


Akarte, M., Surendra, N., Ravi, B., and Rangaraj, N. (2001). Web based casting supplier evaluation using analytical hierarchy process. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 52(5), 511-522. Doi:
Al-Harbi, K. M. A. (2001). Application of the AHP in project management. International Journal of Project Management, 19(1), 19-27. Doi:
Andersson, R., and Menckel, E. (1995). On the prevention of accidents and injuries: a comparative analysis of conceptual frameworks. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 27(6), 757-768. Doi:
Arbel, A., and Orgler, Y. E. (1990). An application of the AHP to bank strategic planning: The mergers and acquisitions process. European Journal of Operational Research, 48(1), 27-37. Doi:
Armacost, R. L., Componation, P. J., Mullens, M. A., and Swart, W. W. (1994). An AHP framework for prioritizing customer requirements in QFD: an industrialized housing application. IIE Transactions, 26(4), 72-79. Doi:
Atsumbe, B., Amine, J., Umar, I., and Salawu, J. (2012). Appraisal of occupational safety in manufacturing industries in Kaduna and Niger states of Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 6, 55-62.
Badri, M. A. (2001). A combined AHP–GP model for quality control systems. International Journal of Production Economics, 72(1), 27-40. Doi:
Bayazit, O. (2005). Use of AHP in decision-making for flexible manufacturing systems. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 16(7), 808-819. Doi:
Bhagwat, R., and Sharma, M. (2007). Information system architecture: a framework for a cluster of small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Production Planning & Control, 18(4), 283-296. Doi:
Boucher, T. O., and MacStravic, E. L. (1991). Multiattribute evaluation within a present value framework and its relation to the analytic hierarchy process. The Engineering Economist, 37(1), 1-32. Doi:
Brauer, R. L. (2016). Safety and health for engineers. John Wiley & Sons.
Cambron, K. E., and Evans, G. W. (1991). Layout design using the analytic hierarchy process. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 20(2), 211-229. Doi:
Das, M. C., Sarkar, B., and Ray, S. (2012). A framework to measure relative performance of Indian technical institutions using integrated fuzzy AHP and COPRAS methodology. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 46(3), 230-241. Doi:
Feyer, A.-M., and Williamson, A. M. (1991). A classification system for causes of occupational accidents for use in preventive strategies. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 302-311. Doi:
Harker, P. T., and Vargas, L. G. (1987). The theory of ratio scale estimation: Saaty's analytic hierarchy process. Management Science, 33(11), 1383-1403. Doi:
Kwon, O.-J., and Kim, Y.-S. (2013). An analysis of safeness of work environment in Korean manufacturing: The “safety climate” perspective. Safety Science, 53, 233-239. Doi:
Marhavilas, P.-K., Koulouriotis, D., and Gemeni, V. (2011). Risk analysis and assessment methodologies in the work sites: On a review, classification and comparative study of the scientific literature of the period 2000–2009. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 24(5), 477-523. Doi:
Mudavanhu, N., Zhou, T., and Dzomba, P. (2013). An assessment of small and medium enterprise owners’ occupational safety and health efforts: the case of Southerton, Harare, Zimbabwe. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, 4(3), 407-418. Doi:
Peterson, D. (2005). Safety improvement: Perception surveys can reveal strengths and weaknesses. Professional Safety, 50(1), 45-48.
Saaty, T. L. (1985). Decision making for leaders. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 3, 450-452.
Saaty, T. L. (1990). How to make a decision: the analytic hierarchy process. European Journal of Operational Research, 48(1), 9-26. Doi:
Saiyed, H. N., and Tiwari, R. R. (2004). Occupational health research in India. Industrial Health, 42(2), 141-148. Doi:
Shikdar, A. A., and Al-Araimi, S. A. (2001). Ergonomic conditions in small manufacturing industries" Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Science [SQUJS], 6(1), 61-70. Doi:
Shikdar, A. A., and Sawaqed, N. M. (2003). Worker productivity, and occupational health and safety issues in selected industries. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 45(4), 563-572. Doi:
Singh, L. P. (2018). Work study and ergonomics. Oxford: Cambridge University Press.
Singh, L. P., Bhardwaj, A., Deepak, K., and Bedi, R. (2009). Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India. Industrial Health, 47(4), 423-430. Doi:
Singh, S., Singh, L. P., and Kaur, M. (2016). Analytical Hierarchy process-based methodology for selection of safety parameters in manufacturing industry. In Arezes P. (Ed.) Advances in Safety Management and Human Factors, 491, Springer, Cham. Doi:
Singh, S., Singh, L. P. (2016). Selection of occupational safety factors related to small scale manufacturing industry. 14th International Conference on Humanizing Work and Work Environment HWWE-2016.

Triantaphyllou, E., and Mann, S. H. (1995). Using the analytic hierarchy process for decision making in engineering applications: some challenges. International Journal of Industrial Engineering: Applications and Practice, 2(1), 35-44.
Viswanadhan, K. (2005). How to get responses for multi-criteria decisions in engineering education–an AHP based approach for selection of measuring instrument. Financial Support, 20.
Vredenburgh, A. G. (2002). Organizational safety: which management practices are most effective in reducing employee injury rates?. Journal of Safety Research, 33(2), 259-276. Doi:
Wang, D., and Wang, X. (2010). Research on the green vendor selection index weight of iron & steel enterprises based on AHP and entropy method. Soft Science,8, 025.
Wani, V., Garg, T., and Sharma, S. (2004). Effective industry/institute interaction for developing entrepreneurial vision amongst engineers for the sustainable development of SMEs in India. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 3(1), 38-55. Doi:
Wilson, J. R., and Corlett, N. (2005). Evaluation of human work. CRC press.
Zwetsloot, G., and Leka, S. (2010). Corporate culture, health, and well-being. Occupational Health Psychology, 21(2) 250-268.