Published Sep 19, 2016
Prabal Sapkota Martina Pokharel Madhav Prasad Pandey


The issue of climate change and energy crisis can be resolved by the advancement of sustainable energy systems. The process of energy development in developing countries with a poor economy is complicated. One has to consider numerous factors and sub-factors which are important for the system to be acceptable to the multiple stakeholders. Involvement of multiple entities makes the process a real case of Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). This study deals with identification of various stakeholders, factors, sub-factors and alternatives associated with sustainable energy selection in Nepal. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been used as a tool to deal with the MCDM problem in this research. Prioritization of alternatives has been obtained with the application of AHP. Further, the analysis has also been done based on the perception of multiple stakeholder groups. The result shows that politicians are the most important (61%) among the stakeholders for the development of sustainable energy in Nepal. Among the alternatives, the majority of the respondents believe that biogas should be given the highest priority.


Download data is not yet available.



AHP, MCDM, sustainable, energy systems

Abbasi T. et al. (2010). Biomass energy and the environmental impacts associated with its production and utilization. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(3), 919–937. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.11.006

AEPC. (2013). Study on role of renewable energy technologies in climate change mitigation and adaptation options in Nepal. Alternative Energy Promotion Center, Nepal.

Ahmad S. et al. (2014). Selection of renewable energy sources for sustainable development of electricity generation system using analytic hierarchy process: A case of Malaysia. Renewable Energy, 63, 458. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.10.001

Akella A. K. et al. (2008). Social, economical and environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. Renewable Energy, 34, 390–396. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.05.002

Amer, M. & Diam T. (2011). Selection of renewable energy technologies for a developing county: A case of Pakistan. Energy for Sustainable Development, 15, 420. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2011.09.001

Arent D.J. et al., (2011). The status and prospects of renewable energy for combating global warming. Energy Economics, 33, 584. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2010.11.003

Bhattarai, S. & Fujiwara, O. (1995). Evaluation of appropriate scale of hydropower development for Nepal: Analytical Hierarchy Process approach. Infrastructure Planning and Management Program, Asian Institute of Technology.

Cristóbal, S.J.R. (2011). Multi-criteria decision-making in the selection of a renewable energy project in Spain: The Vikor method. Renewable Energy, 36, 498. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.07.031

Daniel J. et al. (2010). Evaluation of the significant renewable energy resources in India using Analytical Hierarchy Process. Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-04045-0_2

Edenhofer. O. et al. (2012). IPCC special report renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Cambridge, United Kingdom New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

IPCC. (2001). Climate change, impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, report of the working group II, UK: Cambridge University Press, 967. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(03)00039-X

IPCC. (2011). Summary for policymakers. In: IPCC special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Kabir, A.B.M.Z. et al. (2003). Selection of renewable energy sources using Analytic Hierarchy Process. ISAHP 2003, Bali, Indonesia.

Luthra, S. et al. (2015). Barriers to renewable/sustainable energy technologies adoption: Indian perspective. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41,762. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.08.077

Mateo, J.R.S.C. (2012), Multi-criteria analysis in the renewable energy industry. London: Springer-Verlag Limited. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4471-2346-0

Mirza U.K. et al. (2009). Identifying and addressing barriers to renewable energy development in Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 927. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2007.11.006

Moghaddama E.A. et al. (2015). Energy balance and global warming potential of biogas-based fuels from a life cycle perspective. Fuel Processing Technology, 132, 74–82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.12.014

MoSTE (2014), Second national communication to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Nepal.

Nachtnebel, H.P. & Singh, R.P.(2015). Prioritizing hydropower development using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) - A case study of Nepal. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, 7(2), 313-336. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13033/ijahp.v7i2.253

NEA (2014). Annual report. Nepal Electricity Authority.

NREL (1999), Biofuels: A Solution for Climate Change, U.S. Department of Energy.

O’Connor P.A. (2009). Energy transitions. Boston University.

Pohekar S.D.et al. (2004). Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planning—A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 8, 365. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2003.12.007

Polatidis, H. H. et al. (2006). Selecting an appropriate Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis technique for renewable energy planning. Energy Sources, 1,181–193. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/009083190881607

Richards, G.et al. (2012). Barriers to renewable energy development: A case study of large-scale wind energy in Saskatchewan, Canada. Energy Policy, 42, 691. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.12.049

Saaty, T. L. (2008). Decision making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process. International Journal of Services Sciences, 1(1), 83-98. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJSSCI.2008.017590

Sapkota A. et al (2014). Role of renewable energy technologies in rural communities’ adaptation to climate change in Nepal. Renewable Energy, 68, 79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2009.01.002

Sapkota,P. & Kim, H.(2009). Zinc–air fuel cell, a potential candidate for alternative energy. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 15, 445. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2010.01.024

Sapkota, P. & Kim, H.(2010). An experimental study on the performance of a zinc air fuel cell with inexpensive metal oxide catalysts and porous organic polymer separators, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 16, 39. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2010.01.024

Theodorou S. et al. (2010). The use of multiple criteria decision making methodologies for the promotion of RES through funding schemes in Cyprus: A review. Energy Policy, 38, 7783. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.08.038

Terrados, J. et al. (2010). Energy planning: A sustainable approach. Spain: IDEA Research Group, University of Jaén.

USDA. ( 2014). Biogas opportunities roadmap. U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Energy.

Wang, J.J. et al. (2009). Review on multi-criteria decision analysis aid in sustainable energy decision-making. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 2263. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.06.021

Wang, Q. et al. (2010). Barriers and opportunities of using the clean development mechanism to advance renewable energy development in China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 1989. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.03.023

Wee H. M. et al. (2012). Renewable energy supply chains, performance, application barriers, and strategies for further development. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 5451. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.06.006

Yadoo, A. & Cruickshank, H. (2012). The role for low carbon electrification technologies in poverty reduction and climate change strategies: A focus on renewable energy mini-grids with case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya. Energy Policy, 42, 591. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.12.029

Yuksel, I. (2008). Global warming and renewable energy sources for sustainable development in Turkey. Renewable Energy, 33, 802. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2007.05.040