Private small hydropower plant investments are more challenging than medium and large private hydropower plant investments when considering engineering analysis. One of the necessary tasks is the selection of the most appropriate private small hydropower investment amongst several alternatives. Brokerage, consultancy and private investor activities are a few examples of these kinds of real world activities. There are many multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) or multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods, and different researchers prefer different methods This research study investigates three methods at once for the same problem: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) III and ELECTRE IV. A comparative investigation is conducted on one simple unique selection model for all three methods. This unified model has seven objective factors (catchment area, project runoff, net head, flow rate, firm energy, secondary energy, investment cost). An additional comparison is also made on the criteria weighting amongst equal objective, Shannonâ€™s Entropy objective and Saatyâ€™s subjective criteria weighting. The simplistic unified model is structured in three levels. There are seven alternatives in the pre-development investment stage. The Super Decisions software and the ELECTRE III-IV software are implemented in this study. The pairwise comparisons of factors results in an inconsistency value of 0,09511 which is 7th in the Saaty's AHP weighting. The Shannonâ€™s Entropy objective weighting represents a difference in the rate of the expert decision makerâ€™s evaluations ranging between -67% and 671%. The equal weighting represents a rate change between -64% and 626%. Both approaches can't represent human judgments (here only one expert decision maker) well in this model. Fortunately, the same alternative (Alternative 3) ranks first. These findings promise that further studies on this subject can give some clues for the development of an autonomous computer based intelligent decision support system. Some observed pros and cons of these methods are also presented in this study. The observations and critical issues are presented during modeling, application, evaluation and analysis to help researchers, consultants, and readers in the small hydropower investments research and practical fields.Â Â
AHP, Carrot2, ELECTRE III, ELECTRE IV, investment, small hydropower plant, Shannon's Entropy
ACM Digital Library (2015). http://dl.acm.org/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Akpinar, N., Talay, I., Gun, S. (2005). Priority setting in agricultural land-use types for sustainable development. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 20(03), 136â€“147. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/RAF200483
Akyene, T. (2012). Cell phone evaluation base on entropy and TOPSIS. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business, 1(12), 9â€“15.
Alavi, M., & Leidner, D.E. (1999). Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues. 99/34/MKT, INSEAD Working Paper Series, INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, France.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (2015). https://www.asme.org/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Andreichicova, O.N., & Radyshevskaya, T.N. (2009). An application of the Analytic Network Process to researching oral health. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, 1(1), 45â€“60. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13033/ijahp.v1i1.7
ASCE Online Research Library (2015). http://ascelibrary.org/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Bajaj, J.L., Mukherjee, N., & Kulkarni, A.V. (2007). Grid-connected small hydropower (SHP) development: Regulatory issues and challenges. International Conference on Small Hydropower, Hydro Sri Lanka.
Barzilai, J. (1998). On the decomposition of value functions. Operations Research Letters, 22(4), 159â€“170. doi:10.1016/S0167-6377(98)00015-7
Bashiri, M. & Hejazi, T.H. (2009). An extension of multi-response optimization in MADM view, Journal of Applied Sciences, 9(9), 1695â€“1702. doi: 10.3923/jas.2009.1695.1702
Benayoun, R., Roy, B. & Sussman, B. (1966). Une mÃ©thode pour guider le choix en prÃ©sence de points de vue multiples. Note de travail 49. SEMA-METRA. Direction-Scientifique.
Berakovic, B., Pavlin, Z., & Stefanac, S. (2009). Small hydroâ€“A part of water management. International Symposium on Water Management and Hydraulic Engineering, Ohrid, Macedonia.
Bromiley, P.A., Thacker, N.A., & Bouhova-Thacker, E. (2004). Shannon entropy, Renyi entropy, and information. Rapport technique, School of Cancer and Imaging Sciences, University of Manchester, 93. http://www.tina-vision.net/docs/memos/2004-004.pdf
Brunelli, M. (2015). Introduction to the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-12502-2.
Cambridge Journals Online (2015). http://journals.cambridge.org/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Cambridge University Press (2015). syllogism.
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/syllogism accessed in 02/08/2015.
Carrot2. (2015). http://project.carrot2.org/ accessed in 03/08/2015.
Carter, T. (2014). An introduction to information theory and entropy. Complex Systems Summer School Santa Fe. http://astarte.csustan.edu/~ tom/SFI-CSSS
Crooks, G.E. (2015). On measures of entropy and information.
http://threeplusone.com/info accessed in 01/08/2015.
Damaskos, X., & Kalfakakou. G. (2005). Application of ELECTRE III and DEA methods in the BPR of a bank branch network, Yugoslav Journal of Operations Research, 15(2), 259â€“276. doi: 10.2298/YJOR0502259D
Dias, J.A., Figueira, J.R., & Roy, B. (2006). The software ELECTRE III-IV methodology and user manual (Version 3.X). University Paris-Dauphine Lamsade.
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) (2015). http://doaj.org/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Dragu, C., Sels, T., & Belmans, R. (2010). Small hydro power-state of the art and applications. Leuven, Belgium: ESAT-ELEN, Energy Institute.
Eliasson, J., & Ludvigsson, G. (2000). Load factor of hydropower plants and its importance in planning and design. 11th International Seminar on Hydro Power Plants, Hydros Future in Changing Markets. Vienna, Austria: University of Technology.
Emerald Insight (2015). http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
European Commission (EC) (2014).
http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/eu/index_en.cfm?pg=research-hydropower accessed on 02/09/2014.
European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) (2012). REN21 Renewables 2012 Global Status Report. Paris, France: European Focus. http://www.ren21.net/
European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA), Swedish Renewable Energy Association (SERO) & Lithuanian Hydropower Association (LHA), (2008). Small Hydro Energy Efficient Promotion Campaign Action (SHERPA) Project, Strategic study for development of small hydropower in the European Union brochure. Bruxelles, Belgium.
European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA) (2004). Guide on how to develop a small hydropower plant. Bruxelles, Belgium.
European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA) (2005). Brochure on environmental integration of small hydropower plants. Belgium.
Figueira, J.R., Greco, S., Roy, B., & Slowinski, R. (2010). ELECTRE methods: main features and recent developments, Laboratoire d'Analyse et ModÃ©lisation de SystÃ¨mes pour l'Aide Ã la DÃ©cision Cahier Du Lamsade, 298, 1â€“34.
Figueira, J., Mousseau, V., & Roy, B. (2005). ELECTRE methods. In Figueira, J., Salvatore G., & Matthias E. (Eds.), Multiple criteria decision analysis: state of the art surveys. 133-153. New York: Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/b100605
Fu, Y., Wang, M., & Lai, K. K. (2015). A modified nature publishing index via Shannon Entropy. New York, USA: Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, Hindawi Publishing Corporation. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/640924
Ganser, D. (2005). Terrorism in Western Europe: an approach to NATO's secret stay-behind armies. The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, 6, 69-95.
Ganser, D. (2001). Fear as a weapon the effects of psychological warfare on domestic and international politics. World Affairs, 9(4), 28-44.
Garuti, C.A. (2012). Measuring in weighted environments, moving from metric to order topology. Universidad Federico Santa Maria, Santiago, Chile. Pittsburgh, PA: RWS Publications. ISBN: 978-1-888603-21-7.
Gawlik, R. (2008). Preliminary criteria reduction for the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Munich Personal RePEc Archive MPRA, 45348, Cracow University of Economics.
Geldermann, J., Schobel, A. (2011). On the similarities of some multiâ€criteria decision analysis methods. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, 18, 219â€“230. doi: 10.1002/mcda.468
Georges River (2015). What is a catchment?
http://www.georgesriver.org.au/What-is-a-catchment.html accessed in 28/07/2015.
Gilliams, S., Raymaekers, D., Muys, B., Van Orshoven, J., (2005). Comparing multiple criteria decision methods to extend a geographical information system on afforestation. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 49(1), 142â€“158. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2005.02.011
Gitman, L.J., Joehnk, M.D., Billingsley, R.S., (2014). Personal financial planning. USA: Cengage Learning, South-Western. ISBN-13: 978-1-111-97163-2.
globalrates.com, (2015). http://www.global-rates.com/interest-rates/libor/american-dollar/usd-libor-interest-rate-12-months.aspx accessed in 31/07/2015.
Google Scholar (2015). http://scholar.google.com.tr/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Govindan, K., Jepsen, M.B. (2014) ELECTREâ€“Past, Present and Future, European Working Group Multiple Criteria Decision Aiding, Series 3, nÂº 30 Autumn 2014 Newsletter Bulletin, 15â€“18 http://www.cs.put.poznan.pl/ewgmcda/newsletter/Fall14.pdf
Grau, J.B., Anton, J.M., Tarquis, A.M., Colombo, F., de los Rios, L., Cisneros, J.M., (2010). An application of mathematical models to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control (Chaco Areaâ€“Salta Provinceâ€“Argentina). Biogeosciences, 7, 3421â€“3433. doi:10.5194/bg-7-3421-2010
Hall, D.G. (2003). Estimation of economic parameters of U.S. hydropower resources. Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.
Heuer, R.J. (1999). Psychology of intelligence analysis. Washington, D.C.: Center for the Study of Intelligence. ISBN 1 929667-00-0
Hindawi Publishing Corporation (2015). http://www.hindawi.com/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Huang, W.C. & Chen, C.H. (2005). Using the ELECTRE II method to apply and analyze the differentiation theory, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 5, 2237â€“2249.
Hung, C.C. & Chen, L.H. (2009). A Fuzzy TOPSIS decision making model with entropy weight under intuitionistic fuzzy environment, Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, 1, Hong Kong.
Inderscience Publishers (2015). http://www.inderscience.com/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy and its Authors (IEP) (2015). Deductive and inductive arguments http://www.iep.utm.edu/ded-ind/ accessed in 02/08/2015.
International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for Hydropower Technologies and Programmes (IEA Hydropower) (2015). What is hydropower's history?.
http://www.ieahydro.org/What_is_hydropower's_history.html accessed in 20/07/2015.
International Hydropower Association (IHA) (2015). A brief history of hydropower. http://www.hydropower.org/a-brief-history-of-hydropower accessed in 20/07/2015.
International Hydropower Association, International Commission on Large Dams, International Energy Agency, Canadian Hydropower Association (IHAICLD) (2000). Hydropower and the world's energy future, the role of hydropower in bringing clean, renewable, energy to the world. Paris, France.
International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (IJAHP) (2015). http://www.ijahp.org/index.php/IJAHP accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Investopedia (2015a). Understanding the time value of money.
http://www.investopedia.com/articles/03/082703.asp accessed in 31/07/2015.
Investopedia (2015b). Future Value - FV.
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/futurevalue.asp accessed in 31/07/2015.
Ishizaka, A. & Nemery, P. (2013). Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Methods and software 1st Edition. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-1-119-97407-9
Janiak, M.K., & Zak, J. (2014). Multiple criteria evaluation of different redesign variants of the public tram system. Transportation Research Procedia, 3, 690-699. doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2014.10.048
Jorba, O., Loridan, T., JimÃ©nez-Guerrero, P., PÃ©rez, C., & Baldasano, J. M. (2008). Linking the advanced research WRF meteorological model with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model. Environmental Modelling & Software, 23(8), 1092-1094. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.02.002
Known, A.J., Martin, J.D., Petty, J.W., & Scott, D.F. (2004). Foundations of finance: The logic and practice of financial management, 4th edition. Beijing, China: Pearson Education Asia Limited and Tsinghua University Press. EISBN: 0-13-047982-9
Kruger, H.A., & Hattingh, J.M. (2006). A combined AHP-GP model to allocate internal auditing time to projects. ORiON, 22 (1), 59â€“76. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5784/22-1-33
Kullback, S., & Leibler, R.A. (1951) On information and sufficiency, The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 2, 79â€“86. doi: 10.1214/aoms/1177729694.
Kurien, J., & Sinha, A.K. (2006). Small hydro power - Nabard's involvement and future outlook. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Mumbai, Himalayan Small Hydropower Summit, Dehradun.
Lair, J., Rissanen, T. & Sarja, A. (2004). Life cycle management of concrete infrastructures for improved sustainability methods for optimisation and decision making in lifetime management of structure. European Community Competitive and Sustainable Growth Programme, 30â€“51.
Lako, P., Eder, H., De Noord, M., Reisinger, H., (2003). Hydropower development with a focus on Asia and Western Europe. Overview in the framework of VLEEM 2, ECN and Verbund plan, The Netherlands.
Langbein, W.B. & Iseri, K.T. (1995). General introduction and hydrologic definitions, manual of hydrology: Part 1. General surface-water techniques, Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1541-A, Methods and practices of the Geological Survey, United States Government Printing Office, Washington: 1960, HTML Version 1995, http://water.usgs.gov/wsc/glossary.html accessed in 28/07/2015.
Lesne, A. (2011). Shannon entropy: a rigorous mathematical notion at the crossroads between probability, information theory, dynamical systems and statistical physics. Mathematical Structures in Computer Science, 1â€“40. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0960129512000783
Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, No: 140, New York, USA.
Liu, H., Masera, D. & Esser, L., eds. (UNIDO and ICSHP) (2013). World small hydropower development report 2013. United Nations Industrial Development Organization: International Center on Small Hydro Power. Available from www.smallhydroworld.org.
Logan, R.K. (2012). What is information?: Why is it relativistic and what is its relationship to materiality, meaning and organization. Information, 3(1), 68-91. doi:10.3390/info3010068
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE), (2015), syllogism
http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/syllogism accessed in 02/08/2015.
Lootsma, F.A. (1990), The French and the American school in multi-criteria decision analysis. Recherche Operationnele / Operations Research, 24(3), 263â€“285.
Lootsma, F.A. & Schuijt, H., (1998). The multiplicative AHP, SMART and ELECTRE in a common context. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, 6, 185â€“196. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1360(199707)6:4<185::AID-MCDA136>3.0.CO;2-E
Lotfi, F.H. & Fallahnejad, R. (2010) Imprecise Shannonâ€™s entropy and multi attribute decision making. Entropy, 12, 53â€“62. doi:10.3390/e12010053
Macura, D., & Selmic, M. (2015). Railway project evaluation with dynamic priorities â€“Serbia case study. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, 7(1), 1936-6744. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13033/ijahp.v7i1.292
Mahmoud, M.R., & Garcia, L.A. (2000). Comparison of different multicriteria evaluation methods for the Red Bluff diversion dam. Environmental Modelling & Software, 15(5), 471-478. doi: 10.1016/S1364-8152(00)00025-6
Massei, G., Rocchi, L., Paolotti, L., Greco, S., Boggia, A. (2014). Decision support systems for environmental management: A case study on wastewater from agriculture, Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 491-504. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.08.012
McDaniel, K.R., Ngala, F., Leonard, K.M., (2015), Does competency matter? Competency as a factor in workplace bullying. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(5), 597-609. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMP-02-2013-0046
Miller, G.A., (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. The Psychological Review, 63, 81â€“97. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043158
moneycafe, (2015). http://www.moneycafe.com/personal-finance/libor/
accessed in 31/07/2015.
Moreire, J.R., & Poole, A.D. (1993). Hydropower and its constraints. In: Johansson
T.B. et al. (Eds), Renewable energy: sources for fuels and electricity. Washington D.C.: Island Press 73â€“120.
National Hydropower Association (NHA) (2015). History of Hydro.
http://www.hydro.org/tech-and-policy/history-of-hydro/ accessed in 20/07/2015.
Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, 30/03/2013 (Official Gazette 28603), (2015).
http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2013/03/20130330-14.htm accessed in 21/07/2015.
Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey, 02/10/2013 (Official Gazette 28783), (2015).
http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2013/10/20131002-3.htm accessed in 21/07/2015.
OnlineStatBook, (2015). Online Statistics Education: A Multimedia Course of Study (http://onlinestatbook.com/). Project Leader: David M. Lane, Rice University. accessed in 06/11/2015.
Osinski, S., & Weiss, D. (2005). A concept-driven algorithm for clustering search results. Intelligent Systems, IEEE, 20(3), 48â€“54. doi:10.1109/MIS.2005.38
Ozcan, T., Celebi, N., Esnaf, S. (2011). Comparative analysis of multi-criteria decision making methodologies and implementation of a warehouse location selection problem. Expert Systems with Applications, 38, 9773â€“9779. doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2011.02.022
Panneerselvam, R. (2012). Engineering economics. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. ISBN-978-81-203-1743-7
Phogat, M.V.S., & Singh, A.P. (2013). Selection of equipment for construction of a hilly road using multi criteria approach. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 104, 282-291. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.121
Pohekar, S.D., & Ramachandran, M. (2004). Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planningâ€”a review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 8(4), 365-381. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2003.12.007
Pomerol, J.C., & Barba-Romero, S. (2012). Multicriterion decision in management: principles and practice (Vol. 25). New York, New York: Springer Science & Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-4459-3_11
Raju, K.S., & Pillai, C.R.S. (1999). Multicriterion decision making in river basin planning and development. European Journal of Operational Research, 112(2), 249-257. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(98)00006-X
Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21) (2015). Renewables 2015 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat. ISBN 978-3-9815934-6-4
(Figure 28. Countries with Renewable Energy Policies and Targets, Early 2015 http://www.ren21.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/GSR2015_Figure28.jpg)
Republic of Turkey Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) (2013).
(http://www.emra.gov.tr/) or (http://www.epdk.gov.tr). (latest data in September in 2012)
Rogers, M., & Bruen, M., (1998). Choosing realistic values of indifference, preference and veto thresholds for use with environmental criteria within ELECTRE, European Journal of Operational Research, 107(3), 542â€“551. doi: 10.1016/S0377-2217(97)00175-6
Roy, B. (1968). Classement et choix en presence de points de vue multiples (La methode ELECTRE). Revue Francaise D Informatique de Recherche Operationnelle, 2 (8), 57-75.
Roy, B. (1991). The outranking approach and the foundations of ELECTRE methods, Theory and Decision, 31, 49â€“73. doi: 10.1007/BF00134132
Saaty, T.L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill. doiI: 10.1080/00137918308956077
Saaty, T.L. (1987). The Analytic Hierarchy Process-what it is and how it is used. Mathematical Modelling, 9(3â€“5), 161â€“176. doi:10.1016/0270-0255(87)90473-8
Saaty, T.L. (1990). How to make a decision: The Analytic Hierarchy Process. European Journal of Operational Research, 48, 9â€“26. doi:10.1016/0377-2217(90)90057-I
Saaty, T.L. (2008). Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences, 1(1), 83â€“98. doi: 10.1504/IJSSCI.2008.017590
Saaty, T.L., & Daji, R. (2015). When is a decision making method trustworthy? Criteria for evaluating multi-criteria decision making methods. International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 1â€“17, doi: 10.1142/S021962201550025X.
Saaty, T.L., & Sodenkamp, M. (2010). The Analytic Hierarchy and Analytic Network measurement processes: The measurement of intangibles. In: Handbook of Multicriteria Analysis. Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 91â€“166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-92828-7_4
Saaty, T.L., Vargas, L.G., & Whitaker, R. (2009). Addressing with brevity criticisms of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, 1(2), 121â€“134. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13033/ijahp.v1i2.53
Saaty, R.W. (2004). Why Barzilaiâ€™s criticisms of the AHP are incorrect. Proceedings of the International MCDM Meeting, Whistler.
Sabzi, H.Z. & King, J.P. (2015). Numerical comparison of multi-criteria decision-Making techniques: A simulation of flood management multi-criteria systems. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2015, 359â€“373. Doi; 10.1061/9780784479162.035
Safari, H., Fagheyi, M.S., Ahangari, S.S., & Fathi, M.R. (2012). Applying Promethee method based on entropy weight for supplier selection. Business Management and Strategy, 3(1), 97-106. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/bms.v3i1.1656
Samaras, G.D., Gkanas, N.I., Konstantinia, C. (2014). Assessing risk in dam projects using AHP and ELECTRE I. International Journal of Construction Management, 14(4), 255-266. doi: 10.1080/15623599.2014.971942
Sanchez-Lozano, J.M., GarcÃa-Cascales, M.S., Lamata, M.T. (2015). Evaluation of suitable locations for the installation of solar thermoelectric power plants. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 87, 343-355. doi:10.1016/j.cie.2015.05.028
Saracoglu, B.O. (2013). Selecting industrial investment locations in master plans of countries. European Journal of Industrial Engineering, 7(4), 416â€“441. doi: 10.1504/EJIE.2013.055016
Saracoglu, B.O. (2015a). An experimental research sudy on the solution of a private small hydropower plant investments selection problem by ELECTRE III/IV, Shannonâ€™s Entropy, and Saatyâ€™s subjective criteria weighting. Advances in Decision Sciences, 2015, 1-20. doi:10.1155/2015/548460
Saracoglu, B.O. (2015b). An AHP application in the investment selection problem of small hydropower plants in Turkey. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (IJAHP), 7(2), 1â€“29, doi: 10.13033/ijahp.v7i2.198.
Saracoglu, B.O. (2015c). An experimental research of small hydropower plant investments selection in Turkey by Carrot2, DEXi, DEXiTree. Journal of Investment and Management, 4(1): 47-60. doi: 10.11648/j.jim.20150401.17
Sawicka, H., Weglinski, S., Witort, P. (2010). Application of multiple criteria decision aid methods in logistic systems. LogForum, 6(3), 10.
Saxena, P. (2007). Small hydro development in India. International Conference on Small Hydropower, Hydro Sri Lanka, 1â€“6.
Schmidt, R. & Denny, T. (2004). Hydropower, web projects Spring 2004, College Physics II, Physics 104, Instructed by Dr. David Newman, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, Physics Department,
http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/104_spring2004.web.dir/Todd_Robyn/Page5.htm accessed in 20/07/2015.
ScienceDirectÂ® (2015a). All Advanced search tips
http://help.sciencedirect.com/flare/sdhelp_Left.htm#CSHID=stadv_main_all.htm|StartTopic=Content%2Fstadv_main_all.htm|SkinName=svs_SD accessed in 23/07/2015.
Science DirectÂ® (2015b). http://www.sciencedirect.com/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Science Publishing Group (2015).
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/home/index.aspx accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Shannon, C.E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379â€“423, 623â€“656. doi: 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x
Shannon, C.E. (1951). Prediction and entropy of printed English. The Bell System Technical Journal, 30(1), 50-64. doi: 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1951.tb01366.x
Shaverdi, M., Akbari, M., Tafti, S.F. (2011). Combining fuzzy MCDM with BSC approach in performance evaluation of Iranian private banking sector. Advances in Fuzzy Systems, 2011, 1-12 pages. doi:10.1155/2011/148712
Shiffrin, R.M., Nosofsky, R.M., (1994). Seven plus or minus two: a commentary on capacity limitations. Psychological Review, 101(2), 357â€“361. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.101.2.357
Signore Green 1001freedownloads.com (signore_green), (2015).
http://www.1001freedownloads.com/free-clipart/architetto-remix-green-blond-man-icon accessed in 20/07/2015.
Soncini-Sessa, R., Weber, E., & Castelletti, A. (2007). Integrated and participatory water resources management-theory ,Vol. 1. The Netherlands: Elsevier.
Springer (2015). http://www.springer.com/gp/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Taylor & Francis Online/Journals (2015). http://www.tandfonline.com/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
TCMB (The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey) (2015).
accessed on 31/07/2015.
Tzeng, G.H., Chen, T.Y., & Wang, J.C., (1998) A weight-assessing method with habitual domains, European Journal of Operational Research, 110(2), 342â€“367. doi:10.1016/S0377-2217(97)00246-4
United Nations Industrial Development Organization & International Center on Small Hydro Power (UNIDO and ICSHP), (2013). World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013.
Ur-Rehman, A. & Al-Ahamri, A. (2013). Evaluation of alternative industrial robots using AHP and ELECTRE: a comparative study. International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering. 14(1). 58-73. doi: 10.1504/IJISE.2013.052921
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Water Science School (USGS Water Science School) (2015a). The Water Cycle - USGS Water Science School, "Surface Runoff - The Water Cycle" http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclerunoff.html accessed in 28/07/2015.
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Water Science School (USGS Water Science School) (2015b). "How Streamflow is Measured, Part 2: The discharge measurement" http://water.usgs.gov/edu/streamflow2.html accessed in 28/07/2015.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (2015). USGS Current Conditions for Washington, Drainage Area http://waterdata.usgs.gov/wa/nwis/current? accessed in 28/07/2015.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2015).
http://www.eia.gov/tools/glossary/ accessed on 28/07/2015.
Van Rijsbergen, C.J. (1979). Information Retrieval
http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/Preface.html#PREFACE accessed in 23/07/2015.
Wikipedia The free encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation Inc (Wikipedia) (2015a). Deductive reasoning, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deductive_reasoning accessed in 02/08/2015.
Wikipedia The free encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation Inc (Wikipedia) (2015b). Inductive reasoning, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning accessed in 02/08/2015.
Wiley-Blackwell/Wiley Online Library (2015). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
World Scientific Publishing (2015). http://www.worldscientific.com/ accessed and reviewed until 25/07/2015.
Zak, J., Fierek, S., Kruszynski, M. (2014). Evaluation of different transportation solutions with the application of macro simulation tools and multiple criteria group decision making/aiding methodology. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 111, 340-349. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.067
Zamir, O., & Etzioni, O. (1999) Grouper: a dynamic clustering interface to Web search results. Computer Networks, 31(11), 1361â€“1374. doi: 10.1016/S1389-1286(99)00054-7
Zanakis, S.H., Solomon, A., Wishart, N., Dublish, S. (1998). Multi-attribute decision making: A simulation comparison of select methods. European Journal of Operational Research, 107(3), 507-529. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(97)00147-1
Zhou, R., Cai, R., & Tong, G. (2013). Applications of entropy in finance: A review. Entropy, 15(11), 4909-4931. doi:10.3390/e15114909
Zou, Z.H., Yun, Y., & Sun, J.N. (2006). Entropy method for determination of weight of evaluating indicators in fuzzy synthetic evaluation for water quality assessment. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18(5), 1020-1023. doi:10.1016/S1001-0742(06)60032-6
Zukauskas, P., & Vveinhardt, J. (2015). Diagnosis of mobbing as discrimination in employee relations. Engineering Economics, 64(4), 103-113.
Copyright of all articles published in IJAHP is transferred to Creative Decisions Foundation (CDF). However, the author(s) reserve the following:
- All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
- The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain permission from CDF as well. However, CDF may grant rights with respect to journal issues as a whole.
- The right to use all or parts of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, textbooks, or reprint books.
- The authors affirm that the article has been neither copyrighted nor published, that it is not being submitted for publication elsewhere, and that if the work is officially sponsored, it has been released for open publication.
The only exception to the statements in the paragraph above is the following: If an article published in IJAHP contains copyrighted material, such as a teaching case, as an appendix, then the copyright (and all commercial rights) of such material remains with the original copyright holder.
CDF will receive permission for publication of copyrighted material in IJAHP. This permission is not transferable to third parties. Permission to make electronic and paper copies of part or all of the articles, including all computer files that are linked to the articles, for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage.
This permission does not apply to previously copyrighted material, such as teaching cases. In paper copies of the article, the copyright notice and the title of the publication and its date should be visible. To copy otherwise is permitted provided that a per-copy fee is paid.
To republish, to post on servers, or redistribute to lists requires that you post a link to the IJAHP article, which is available in open access delivery mode. Do not upload the article itself.
Authors are permitted to present a talk, based on a paper submitted to or accepted by IJAHP, at a conference where the paper would not be published in a copyrighted publication either before or after the conference and where the author did not assign copyright to the conference or related publisher.